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Date Palm Cultivation Methods and Requirements – Complete Guide

Date Palm is the oldest tree, which cultivated on the earth. They provide rich calcium, sugar, iron and potassium. Moreover, people use them in many religious and social festivals. The date palm fruits have several health benefits, including relief from constipation, reducing heart disease, controlling diarrhoea and helping in pregnancy. In addition, people use them for making Chutney, pickles, jam, juice and other bakery items. Date Palm Cultivation

Date Palm farming is concentrated in Arabic countries, Africa and Israel. And Iran is the prime exporter & producer of Dates. India has also been trying too hard to increase the area of Date Palm farming since the last decade. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Kerala are the highest producers of Date Palm fruits in India. 

Date Palm Farming Methods & Requirements

You have to fulfil the requirements of Date Palm farming. Then, it can increase the yield variety and production. 

Soil Requirement

This fruit can grow any type of soil, and it does not have any specific demand for the ground. But the deep sandy loam soil with a well-drainage system is the best soil for Date Palm farming. And the pH range of the land must be from 7 to 8. You can also grow it in Saline and alkaline soils, but the yield can be low. Apart from this, give ploughing with the quality tractors and planting with implements like Auger machine and others to better germination. Apart from this, the brush cutter is also reasonable in the market. So, you do not have to worry about it. 

Popular Varieties

Following are some varieties for Date Palm farming in India. Let’s know about them. 

  • Barhee – Developed in 2016, late-maturing variety, trees are tall, bears oval shape fruits, fruits yellow in colour and yield is 68.6 kg per tree.
  • Hillawi – Developed in 2016, early maturing variety, fruits are oblong and light orange, and yield is 92.6 kg per tree.

Other state varieties:

  • Medjool – Late maturing type, fruit is large, elongated and Average yield of 75 to 100 kg per tree
  • Khunezi – Early maturing variety, red and elongated fruits, withstand high humidity and an average yield of 40kg per tree.
  • Khadarawyi – Fruits are the soft and yellow and average yield of 60-80kg per tree 
  • Khalas – Fruits are elongated and yellowish-brown.
  • Shamran (Sayer)
  • Zahidi
  • Wild date palm
  • Jamli

Land Preparation

You should plough the land 2 or 3 times to bring the soil to its fine tilth. And you should use a tractor, which can provide good mileage. Then, after levelling, you should dig pits of 1 x 1 x 1 m size in summer. And you have to keep open them for around 2 weeks and then fill them with fertile soil and well-decomposed cow dung. Now, you can add Phorate 10G @ 200gm and Captan @ 20-25gm or Chlorpyriphos @ 50ml in each pit for better germination. Apart from this, you should add a Power weeder tool in your land preparation to remove unwanted plants and weeds. 

Sowing 

February to March and August to September are the best time for sowing. First, you should dig pits 1 x 1 x 1 m sized e of 6 m or 8 meters distance. Lastly, transplant the suckers in the main field. 

Propagation

You can propagate the Date Palm with the help of suckers because propagation with seeds are impractical. You have to choose suckers from the mother plant. Also, you should select the suckers from the plants planted before 4 or 5 years. Choose suckers of 15 to 20 kg for propagation. Moreover, remove older leaves and take a single cut at the time of separation. 

Irrigation

The ideal intervals for irrigation are 10-15 days in summers and 30-40 days in winters. So after spathe emergence, prior irrigation is critical. And you have to give regular irrigation after the fruit set. 

Plant Protection

In plant protection, you have to cure some pests and diseases. We have mentioned some pests and diseases and their cure for this farming in the below section. 

Pest and their control:

  • Termites – Mix 800ml chlorpyrifos in 150 ltr of water and apply in the roots
  • Lesser Date Moth – Take two sprays of Deltamethrin @ 2ml/Ltr of water with an interval
  • Bird – Cover bunch with thin wire net
  • White/red Scale – Spray of Imidacloprid @ 60ml/100Ltr or Acetamiprid @ 60gm/100Ltr of water

Disease and their control:

  • Graphiola leaf spot – Spray of Mancozeb @ 2gm/Ltr or Copper Oxychloride @ 3gm/Ltr of water of water
  • Alternaria leaf blight – Spray of Mancozeb + Carbendazim @ 2gm/Ltr of water
  • Fruit rot – Spray of Mancozeb + Carbendazim @ 2gm/Ltr of water

Harvesting

You can harvest the fruits first time after 4 to 5 years of plantation. And you can also reap the fruits at three stages, khalal or Doka stages (fresh fruits), dry stage (Chuhhara) and Soft or Ripen stage (Pind or Tamar). But, apart from this, you have to harvest completely before the monsoon. 

For more details regarding agriculture tips and methods, stay tuned with us. We will come with our updated knowledge to tell you about more things. So, keep enjoying till then and do whatever you want to do. Stay fit and healthy and save your lovings from the Covid-19. 

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