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Profitable Corn (maize) Farming In India With Guidance

Commonly known as Maize, Corn Farming is one of the most versatile emerging cash crops with broader adaptability under varied climatic conditions. Globally, it is called the queen of grains. In India, Corn or Maize is the third most important food cash crop after rice and wheat.

The Maize is developed throughout the year in all states for various purposes, including food for animals, grain, sweet corn, baby corn, green cobs, and popcorn. In addition, cornflour is consumed widely in Indian cooking.

Maize or Corn serves as an essential raw material to thousands of industrial products, including oil, starch, alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals, food sweeteners, food cereals, cosmetics, film, gum, and textile packaging, and paper industries. 

Maize Production States in India 

Corn is a primarily planted crop in north India. M.P. ranks first in the production of Maize in the country. Central Corn growing states are Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, MP, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, which account for two-thirds of the total area and output of the crop. In South India, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh states are the primary producers of Maize. 

Maize Farming Climatic conditions 

Maize is essentially a rainfed Kharif produced in India just before the monsoon. This crop usually gets well under temperatures ranging from 22°C to 30°C, although it can endure temperatures as high as 35°C. This crop is transformed by frost, so it is developed where at least 5 frost-free months are likely in a year. It needs at least 50 to 90 cm of rainfall. Therefore, it is not advised to cultivate this crop in areas where rain is more than 100 mm.

Maize Farming Soil Conditions 

Corn or Maize can be cultivated intensely in various soils varying from clay loam to sand loamy to black cotton soil. For a better yield of Corn, one should think soils with good organic matter content have high water holding capacity. Therefore, well-drained soils with a pH of 5.5 to 7.0 are favoured for corn farming. A soil test is recommended to manage the deficiency of any nutrient values in the soil. Any defect can be covered by good organic matter or fertilizer at land development.

Corn Sowing Season 

The corn crop is usually cultivated in India, from Jan to Feb, June to July, and Sept to Oct seasons. However, sowing from Nov to Dec is becoming for seed production since seed maturity will not coincide with rain.

Corn farming Land Selection and Field Preparation 

Ploughing should be prepared to get fine tilth, and it may take 6 or 7 ploughs. At least 13 to 14 tons of F.M.Y. per hectare should be spread across the field or composted coir fibre and apply 10 Azospirillum packets in the area. Make furrows and ridges with 45 cm to 50 cm spacing to save the dripping water.

Corn Farming Seed rate and seed treatment 

10 to 11 kg of corn seed is required for sowing a one-hectare field. To control any source borne pathogens of downy mildew (fungal disease), should treat the basis with thiram or carbendazim 2 grams per kg grains. One day after the seed method, the sources should be handled with 600 grams of Azospirillum with rice gruel and shadow dry for 15 to 20 minutes. Azosprillum helps in fixing the climatic nitrogen in the soil.

Corn Crop Manures and Fertilization

At the time of land preparation, use inorganic manure like 470 kg of 200 kg of urea, superphosphate and 180 kg of potash per ha as a basal dose. Twenty days after sowing, you should use 50 to 60 kg of urea and at 40 days after planting 120 kg of urea and 50 kg of potash as a topdressing.

Irrigation method of Corn Cultivation

As soon as sowing is done, essential irrigation is required in the field. Finally, give life irrigation on the third or fourth day based on the soil type and season. Usually, less irrigation is recommended for up to 25 to 30 days for maize crops. Afterwards, it is required to rinse once a week. Mahindra Arjun 605 tractor model is best for irrigation purposes. 

Corn Farming Weed Control/Inter culture methods

It needs at least 2 hands weeding in corn growth, one is on 20 to 25 days, and the difference is on 40 to 45 days after planting. Should apply manure as top dressing & do the earthling up work after weeding is completed. Spray Atrazine 500 grams mixed in 1000 litres of water and life spraying on the 3rd or 4th day manages the plants in the Crop field.

Harvesting process of Corn 

Harvesting should be done when the outer crop cover of the cob turns from green to white colour. We can prepare harvesting by hand. Devices are available to distribute the seeds. Mahindra 265 tractor model is highly used in harvesting for making it for production. 

Yield of Corn 

Again yield depends on the field control and seed quality. The quality seed can submit up to 2500 kg per hectare.

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