The ethical foundations | Ethics UPSC

Mythical account

Introduction to moral codes

What was the date when ethics began and where did it come from? If one thinks of ethics proper–i.e. the systematic examination of what is morally acceptable and wrong, it is obvious that ethics came in the first place only when humans began to think about the best method of living. The stage of reflection came about after societies of humans had established some form of morality that was usually in the form of traditional rules of morality and right and wrong. The process of reflecting was likely to result from these norms even though at the end, it could have found them lacking. Thus, Ethics UPSC started when the moral code was first introduced.

Nearly every society has a mythology to explain the beginnings of morality. Within the Louvre of Paris it is possible to see a dark Babylonian column that has relief depicting God of the Sun Shamash who presented the laws of the Code of Hammurabi (died in c. 1750 BCE) also called Hammurabi’s Code. Code of Hammurabi. It is believed that the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) mentions God’s handing over the Ten Commandments to Moses (flourished 14th-13th century BCE) on Mount Sinai might be considered as a different illustration.

In the play Protagoras written by Plato

(428/427-348/347 BCE) There is an openly mythical version of the story of the way Zeus loved the poor humans, who physically were no match to the creatures. To compensate for the deficiencies, Zeus gave humans a moral sense as well as the ability. To apply justice and law in order to allow them to reside in larger societies and work together.


It must be instilled with the mysterious and divine power theology is not at all surprising. It is the only way to provide solid reasons to accept the moral code. In attribution of a divine source in morality, the clergy was able to become the interpreter and guardian of morality and thus gained the power it could not easily surrender. The connection between religion and morality is so strongly forged that it is often claimed that there is no morality that is not based on the religion. In this perspective ethics is not an individual area of study but instead an area of theology (see moral theology).

There’s a problem that was previously known to Plato in the belief that morality is the result of God’s power. in his dialog Euthyphro, Plato considered the idea that it is God’s approval that makes a particular action morally acceptable. Plato stated that in the event that this was true there is no way to conclude that gods approve of these actions simply because they are beneficial. What is the reason they support these actions? Are they merely expressing their opinions?

Plato thought this was impossible, and argued that there should be rules of morality or ethics which are not influenced by the opinions and preferences of gods. Philosophers of the present have generally accepted Plato’s arguments, as the alternative suggests that if. For instance the gods were to be in favor of torture for children and not approve of helping others and so on. Then the practice of torture was good and good for neighborliness.

Issues with divine source

Modern theists (see theism) could argue that, because God can be good. God cannot possibly be averse to torturing children or not approve of helping others. When he said this, however the theist has accepted that. There exists a measure for goodness which is not influenced by God. Without a standard that is independent that is independent, it is not a good idea to assert God is good.

God is good. This could simply mean that God is awed by God. This suggests that even believers in God’s existence God it is difficult to give a convincing account of the source of morality in the context of God’s creation. It is necessary to give a different explanation.

There are many other relationships between morality and religion. According to some even if the guidelines for morality and good exist independent of God or gods God’s revelation is your only method of determining the standards that are being set.

A major problem with this belief is that people who receive divine revelations. Or believe they are qualified in their interpretation.

May not always have the same view of the good and what’s not.

In the absence of a standardized criterion to judge an authenticity test of the revelation. Or an interpretation, people aren’t more successful. So when determining moral agreement is as far as they could be if they. Were to make their own decisions about. What is good and what is evil by themselves without the assistance of the religion.

In the past, a greater connection between ethics and religion was that the religious doctrines. Were believed to give the motivation to do what’s right. In the simplest way, the reasoning was that those who abide by the moral laws are rewarded. With eternal bliss, while the rest of us smolder in hell. In more sophisticated versions, the reason offered by religion was more inspiring and less self-centered.

In its simple or sophisticated form, or anything in between it is true that religion provides the answer to one of the biggest Ethics Syllabus questions: “Why should I be moral?” (See below for Ethics and motives for action.) As we will see in this essay the answer offered by religion isn’t the only answer that is available.

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